“Avere” – Conjugation of the Italian Verb

In Italian grammar, the verb “avere” (to have) is one of the most essential and commonly used verbs. Mastering its conjugation is fundamental for anyone learning the language. Let’s look into the conjugation of “avere” across different tenses and forms.

Present Tense Conjugation

In the present tense, “avere” is conjugated as follows:

  • Io ho (I have)
  • Tu hai (You have, informal)
  • Egli/ella ha (He/she has)
  • Noi abbiamo (We have)
  • Voi avete (You have, plural or formal)
  • Essi/esse hanno (They have)

Past Tense Conjugation

In the past tense, “avere” is conjugated differently depending on whether it is used with the auxiliary verb “essere” (to be) or “avere” itself.

With Auxiliary Verb “Essere”

When “avere” is used with the auxiliary verb “essere” to form compound tenses (such as the passato prossimo), its past participle “avuto” agrees in gender and number with the subject. For example:

  • Io sono avuto (I have had, if subject is masculine singular)
  • Io sono avuta (I have had, if subject is feminine singular)
  • Noi siamo avuti (We have had, if subject is masculine plural)
  • Noi siamo avute (We have had, if subject is feminine plural)

Without Auxiliary Verb “Essere”

When “avere” is used alone to form compound tenses, such as the trapassato prossimo, its past participle “avuto” remains unchanged regardless of the subject. For example:

  • Io avevo (I had)
  • Tu avevi (You had, informal)
  • Egli/ella aveva (He/she had)
  • Noi avevamo (We had)
  • Voi avevate (You had, plural or formal)
  • Essi/esse avevano (They had)

Future Tense Conjugation

In the future tense, “avere” is conjugated as follows:

  • Io avrò (I will have)
  • Tu avrai (You will have, informal)
  • Egli/ella avrà (He/she will have)
  • Noi avremo (We will have)
  • Voi avrete (You will have, plural or formal)
  • Essi/esse avranno (They will have)

Conditional Tense Conjugation

In the conditional tense, “avere” is conjugated as follows:

  • Io avrei (I would have)
  • Tu avresti (You would have, informal)
  • Egli/ella avrebbe (He/she would have)
  • Noi avremmo (We would have)
  • Voi avreste (You would have, plural or formal)
  • Essi/esse avrebbero (They would have)

Imperative Mood

In the imperative mood, used for giving commands, “avere” is conjugated differently for each subject:

  • Tu abbi (Have, informal)
  • Noi abbiamo (Let’s have)
  • Voi abbiate (Have, plural or formal)

Infinitive and Gerund

  • Infinitive: Avere
  • Gerund: Avendo

Understanding the conjugation of “avere” is crucial for constructing sentences and expressing actions accurately in Italian. Practice these conjugations regularly to improve your proficiency in the language.

Examples of usage

Here are some examples of how the verb “avere” (to have) is used in different contexts:

  1. Possession:

    • Io ho un cane. (I have a dog.)
    • Lei ha una macchina nuova. (She has a new car.)
  2. Age:

    • Quanti anni hai? Ho vent’anni. (How old are you? I am twenty years old.)
    • Loro hanno cinque figli. (They have five children.)
  3. Physical Sensations:

    • Ho fame. (I am hungry.)
    • Marco ha freddo. (Marco is cold.)
  4. Obligations and Necessities:

    • Abbiamo una riunione domani. (We have a meeting tomorrow.)
    • Hai un esame da studiare. (You have an exam to study for.)
  5. Expressions of Time:

    • Oggi ho molto da fare. (Today I have a lot to do.)
    • Domani avrò tempo libero. (Tomorrow I will have free time.)
  6. To Form Compound Tenses:

    • Ho mangiato la pizza ieri sera. (I ate pizza last night.)
    • Non abbiamo mai viaggiato all’estero. (We have never traveled abroad.)
  7. Expressions of Possibility or Probability:

    • Avrà perso il treno. (He must have missed the train.)
    • Avrei potuto aiutarti se mi avessi chiesto prima. (I could have helped you if you had asked me earlier.)
  8. Commands and Suggestions:

    • Abbi pazienza! (Have patience!)
    • Abbiate cura di voi stessi. (Take care of yourselves.)

Understanding the various uses of “avere” is essential for communicating effectively in Italian and expressing a wide range of ideas and concepts.