“Sein” in Present Tense

The German verb “sein” (to be) is essential for expressing various concepts in present tense. Let’s look into how this verb is conjugated and applied in different contexts with examples.


Conjugation of “Sein” in Present Tense

In present tense, “sein” is conjugated as follows:

– Ich bin (I am)
– Du bist (You are)
– Er/sie/es ist (He/she/it is)
– Wir sind (We are)
– Ihr seid (You are)
– Sie sind (They are/You are)

Present tense is called “präsens” in German grammar.


Usage of “Sein” in Present Tense

Identifying or Describing Identity

“Ich bin ein Student.” (I am a student.)
“Du bist meine Schwester.” (You are my sister.)
“Sie ist Lehrerin.” (She is a teacher.)


Describing Characteristics or Attributes

“Er ist groß und schlank.” (He is tall and slim.)
“Sie sind sehr freundlich.” (They are very friendly.)


Indicating Origin or Nationality:

“Ich bin aus Deutschland.” (I am from Germany.)
“Sie sind Spanier.” (They are Spanish.)


Expressing Location

“Wir sind zu Hause.” (We are at home.)
“Die Bücher sind auf dem Tisch.” (The books are on the table.)


Talking about Profession or Occupation

“Er ist Arzt.” (He is a doctor.)
“Sie sind Ingenieure.” (They are engineers.)


Expressing Time:

“Es ist zwölf Uhr.” (It is twelve o’clock.)
“Heute ist Montag.” (Today is Monday.)


Forming the Present Progressive (Continuous) Tense

“Ich bin am Lesen.” (I am reading.)
“Er ist am Lernen.” (He is studying.)


Special Cases

– When referring to the time of day, “sein” is often used impersonally in the third person singular: “Es ist” (It is).
“Es ist halb neun.” (It is half past eight.)

– In informal speech, the pronoun “es” is often omitted, especially in short phrases or sentences.


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