Bøjning af tyske verber

German verb conjugation is a fundamental aspect of mastering the German language. Understanding how verbs change based on tense, mood, person, and number is crucial for effective communication. In this article, we will look into the basics of German verb conjugation, along with examples to illustrate each concept.

 

Verb Endings in Present Tense

In German, verbs undergo changes in their endings depending on the subject pronoun. Here are the verb endings for regular verbs in the present tense:

  1. Ich (I) -e
  2. Du (You, singular informal) -st
  3. Er/Sie/Es (He/She/It) -t
  4. Wir (We) -en
  5. Ihr (You, plural informal) -t
  6. Sie/Sie (They/You, formal) -en

 

Eksempel:

  • “Ich spiele” (Jeg spiller)
  • “Du spielst” (You play)
  • “Er spielt” (He plays)
  • “Wir spielen” (We play)
  • “Ihr spielt” (You play)
  • “Sie spielen” (They play)

 

Verb Endings in Past Tense (Simple Past)

The simple past tense in German, also known as the Präteritum, typically involves different endings compared to the present tense:

  1. Ich (I) -te
  2. Du (You, singular informal) -test
  3. Er/Sie/Es (He/She/It) -te
  4. Wir (We) -ten
  5. Ihr (You, plural informal) -tet
  6. Sie/Sie (They/You, formal) -ten

 

Eksempel:

  • “Ich spielte” (I played)
  • “Du spieltest” (You played)
  • “Er spielte” (He played)
  • “Wir spielten” (We played)
  • “Ihr spieltet” (You played)
  • “Sie spielten” (They played)

 

Verb Endings in Imperative Mood

The imperative mood is used to give commands or make requests. In German, the verb conjugation for the imperative mood can vary depending on the subject and context:

  • Du (You, singular informal): Drop the pronoun and use the verb stem.
  • Ihr (You, plural informal): Add “-t” to the verb stem.
  • Wir (Let’s): Add “-en” to the verb stem.
  • Sie (You, formal) and Sie (They): Use the same form as the present tense, but without the subject pronoun.
  •  

Eksempel:

  • “Spiel!” (Play! – to one person)
  • “Spielt!” (Play! – to multiple people)
  • “Spielen wir!” (Let’s play!)
  • “Spielen Sie!” (Play! – formal)

 

Verb Endings in Future Tense

Fremtidsformen på tysk dannes ofte ved hjælp af hjælpeverbet “werden” (to become) followed by the infinitive of the main verb. The conjugation of “werden” changes based on the subject, while the main verb remains in its infinitive form.

 

Eksempel:

  • “Ich werde spielen” (I will play)
  • “Du wirst spielen” (You will play)
  • “Er wird spielen” (He will play)
  • “Wir werden spielen” (We will play)
  • “Ihr werdet spielen” (You will play)
  • “Sie werden spielen” (They will play)